Richard Collins, Joby Boxall, Influence of Ground Conditions on Intrusion Flows through Apertures in Distribution Pipes


This paper presents a new, tractable analytical expression to describe the intrusion of fluids into buried pipes under steady-state conditions. The expression is validated with results from novel experiments. The derivation is based on the combination of the relevant existing models of flows through porous media and the losses through an orifice, with the resulting expression relating the intrusion flow rate to an applied driving pressure.